Glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype: A New Association with IgM Paraproteinaemic Neuropathy?

It is well recognized that B-cell clonal disorders such as Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinaemia may affect the central nervous system by direct infiltration of malignant B cells (Bing-Neel syndrome). However, there is no recognition in the current literature of a clear link between paraproteinaemia and primary brain tumours such as glioma. We present 3 cases of classical IgM paraproteinaemic neuropathy who developed glioblastoma in the course of their illness following treatment with chemoimmunotherapy (CIT). Due to the progressive symptomatic nature of their neuropathy, all 3 patients were treated with CIT. The patients presented with glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype at 9 months, 5 years, and 6 years following treatment completion. None of the patients had unequivocal evidence of known predisposing factors for glioblastoma. Both disorders are exceedingly rare and the chance of random association is less than one in a million. Potential common pathogenic mechanisms include the influence of paraproteins and circulating lymphoplasmacytic cells on blood-brain permeability and CNS immune micro-environment as well as raised circulating angiogenic cytokines such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In cases with anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) antibodies, surface MAG on glial cells may act as a target releasing cells from growth inhibition. We suggest that all glioblastoma cases be screened at diagnosis for serum paraproteins and that such cases be reported to central registries to establish the frequency of the association more accurately. Case Rep Neurol 2022;14:213–222