Intraoperative radiotherapy for glioblastoma: A systematic review of techniques and outcomes

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most common and most aggressive brain tumors, comprising 48% of primary malignant brain tumors and 57% of gliomas [1,2]. Since the initiation of the Stupp protocol in 2005, treatment strategies to combat this disease involve maximal safe surgical resection followed by 60?Gy radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent daily temozolamide (TMZ), followed by TMZ maintenance for a minimum of 6 cycles [3]. Despite this aggressive treatment, prognosis remains poor with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 6.2–7.5?months and median overall survival (OS) of 14.6–20.5?months [4].