Blood biomarkers may distinguish among dementia disorders

A panel of five plasma biomarkers has shown a characteristic profile in each of the most common neurodegenerative diseases with evolution to dementia

After the first discovery of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and its long analytical validation process, a new matrix (blood) for old and novel candidate markers is changing the way we approach biomarkers in neurological diseases.1

Due to the paradigmatic example of AD, multiple blood-based biomarkers reflecting different pathophysiological processes are under investigation for other neurodegenerative disorders evolving to dementia. Amyloid-β42(Aβ42)/Aβ40 ratio and phosphorylated tau at threonine-181 (p-tau181) in blood have demonstrated to reflect amyloidosis and tauopathy in AD with a reliability similar to what observed in CSF. Also, ongoing neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation can be efficiently quantified by blood neurofilament light chain (NfL) and glial fibrillar acid protein (GFAP), respectively.2

Aβ42/Aβ40, p-tau181, NfL and GFAP make amyloidosis (A),...