Serum molecular biomarkers in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare and severe inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), which mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord (Wingerchuk et al., 2007) (Jarius et al., 2008). In 2006, a specific serum biomarker, an autoantibody against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG), helped distinguish NMOSD from another disease that affects the CNS, multiple sclerosis (MS) (Jarius et al., 2007, Lennon et al., 2004, Wingerchuk et al., 2006). AQP4 is the most abundant water channel in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS).